Working Off Campus
The following information is directly from Immigration and Customs Enforcement:
"Off-campus employment for F-1 students is defined at 8 CFR 214.2 (f)(9)(ii)(A). Generally, it is employment that is for economic need and is not required to be related to the student's academic course of study."
"F 1 students are allowed to enter the United States for academic studies. They are required to show that they will be able to afford the costs of school and living expenses prior to entry and should not plan on being allowed to work off-campus. Off-campus employment is authorized only in cases of severe economic hardship occurring subsequent to a student's enrollment in an academic program or in emergent circumstances as defined by DHS."
‘Working off campus' is often confused with Curricular Practical Training and Optional Practical Training work authorization. Working off campus is not permitted for F-1 students unless they have applied and been approved for Severe Economic Hardship or emergent circumstances.
More information - Work Authorization.